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source: gtest-1.7.0/README @ 12775

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integrated the Google Testing Framework (gtest)

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1Google C++ Testing Framework
2============================
3
4http://code.google.com/p/googletest/
5
6Overview
7--------
8
9Google's framework for writing C++ tests on a variety of platforms
10(Linux, Mac OS X, Windows, Windows CE, Symbian, etc).  Based on the
11xUnit architecture.  Supports automatic test discovery, a rich set of
12assertions, user-defined assertions, death tests, fatal and non-fatal
13failures, various options for running the tests, and XML test report
14generation.
15
16Please see the project page above for more information as well as the
17mailing list for questions, discussions, and development.  There is
18also an IRC channel on OFTC (irc.oftc.net) #gtest available.  Please
19join us!
20
21Requirements for End Users
22--------------------------
23
24Google Test is designed to have fairly minimal requirements to build
25and use with your projects, but there are some.  Currently, we support
26Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, and Cygwin.  We will also make our best
27effort to support other platforms (e.g. Solaris, AIX, and z/OS).
28However, since core members of the Google Test project have no access
29to these platforms, Google Test may have outstanding issues there.  If
30you notice any problems on your platform, please notify
31googletestframework@googlegroups.com.  Patches for fixing them are
32even more welcome!
33
34### Linux Requirements ###
35
36These are the base requirements to build and use Google Test from a source
37package (as described below):
38  * GNU-compatible Make or gmake
39  * POSIX-standard shell
40  * POSIX(-2) Regular Expressions (regex.h)
41  * A C++98-standard-compliant compiler
42
43### Windows Requirements ###
44
45  * Microsoft Visual C++ 7.1 or newer
46
47### Cygwin Requirements ###
48
49  * Cygwin 1.5.25-14 or newer
50
51### Mac OS X Requirements ###
52
53  * Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger or newer
54  * Developer Tools Installed
55
56Also, you'll need CMake 2.6.4 or higher if you want to build the
57samples using the provided CMake script, regardless of the platform.
58
59Requirements for Contributors
60-----------------------------
61
62We welcome patches.  If you plan to contribute a patch, you need to
63build Google Test and its own tests from an SVN checkout (described
64below), which has further requirements:
65
66  * Python version 2.3 or newer (for running some of the tests and
67    re-generating certain source files from templates)
68  * CMake 2.6.4 or newer
69
70Getting the Source
71------------------
72
73There are two primary ways of getting Google Test's source code: you
74can download a stable source release in your preferred archive format,
75or directly check out the source from our Subversion (SVN) repositary.
76The SVN checkout requires a few extra steps and some extra software
77packages on your system, but lets you track the latest development and
78make patches much more easily, so we highly encourage it.
79
80### Source Package ###
81
82Google Test is released in versioned source packages which can be
83downloaded from the download page [1].  Several different archive
84formats are provided, but the only difference is the tools used to
85manipulate them, and the size of the resulting file.  Download
86whichever you are most comfortable with.
87
88  [1] http://code.google.com/p/googletest/downloads/list
89
90Once the package is downloaded, expand it using whichever tools you
91prefer for that type.  This will result in a new directory with the
92name "gtest-X.Y.Z" which contains all of the source code.  Here are
93some examples on Linux:
94
95  tar -xvzf gtest-X.Y.Z.tar.gz
96  tar -xvjf gtest-X.Y.Z.tar.bz2
97  unzip gtest-X.Y.Z.zip
98
99### SVN Checkout ###
100
101To check out the main branch (also known as the "trunk") of Google
102Test, run the following Subversion command:
103
104  svn checkout http://googletest.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ gtest-svn
105
106Setting up the Build
107--------------------
108
109To build Google Test and your tests that use it, you need to tell your
110build system where to find its headers and source files.  The exact
111way to do it depends on which build system you use, and is usually
112straightforward.
113
114### Generic Build Instructions ###
115
116Suppose you put Google Test in directory ${GTEST_DIR}.  To build it,
117create a library build target (or a project as called by Visual Studio
118and Xcode) to compile
119
120  ${GTEST_DIR}/src/gtest-all.cc
121
122with ${GTEST_DIR}/include in the system header search path and ${GTEST_DIR}
123in the normal header search path.  Assuming a Linux-like system and gcc,
124something like the following will do:
125
126  g++ -isystem ${GTEST_DIR}/include -I${GTEST_DIR} \
127      -pthread -c ${GTEST_DIR}/src/gtest-all.cc
128  ar -rv libgtest.a gtest-all.o
129
130(We need -pthread as Google Test uses threads.)
131
132Next, you should compile your test source file with
133${GTEST_DIR}/include in the system header search path, and link it
134with gtest and any other necessary libraries:
135
136  g++ -isystem ${GTEST_DIR}/include -pthread path/to/your_test.cc libgtest.a \
137      -o your_test
138
139As an example, the make/ directory contains a Makefile that you can
140use to build Google Test on systems where GNU make is available
141(e.g. Linux, Mac OS X, and Cygwin).  It doesn't try to build Google
142Test's own tests.  Instead, it just builds the Google Test library and
143a sample test.  You can use it as a starting point for your own build
144script.
145
146If the default settings are correct for your environment, the
147following commands should succeed:
148
149  cd ${GTEST_DIR}/make
150  make
151  ./sample1_unittest
152
153If you see errors, try to tweak the contents of make/Makefile to make
154them go away.  There are instructions in make/Makefile on how to do
155it.
156
157### Using CMake ###
158
159Google Test comes with a CMake build script (CMakeLists.txt) that can
160be used on a wide range of platforms ("C" stands for cross-platofrm.).
161If you don't have CMake installed already, you can download it for
162free from http://www.cmake.org/.
163
164CMake works by generating native makefiles or build projects that can
165be used in the compiler environment of your choice.  The typical
166workflow starts with:
167
168  mkdir mybuild       # Create a directory to hold the build output.
169  cd mybuild
170  cmake ${GTEST_DIR}  # Generate native build scripts.
171
172If you want to build Google Test's samples, you should replace the
173last command with
174
175  cmake -Dgtest_build_samples=ON ${GTEST_DIR}
176
177If you are on a *nix system, you should now see a Makefile in the
178current directory.  Just type 'make' to build gtest.
179
180If you use Windows and have Vistual Studio installed, a gtest.sln file
181and several .vcproj files will be created.  You can then build them
182using Visual Studio.
183
184On Mac OS X with Xcode installed, a .xcodeproj file will be generated.
185
186### Legacy Build Scripts ###
187
188Before settling on CMake, we have been providing hand-maintained build
189projects/scripts for Visual Studio, Xcode, and Autotools.  While we
190continue to provide them for convenience, they are not actively
191maintained any more.  We highly recommend that you follow the
192instructions in the previous two sections to integrate Google Test
193with your existing build system.
194
195If you still need to use the legacy build scripts, here's how:
196
197The msvc\ folder contains two solutions with Visual C++ projects.
198Open the gtest.sln or gtest-md.sln file using Visual Studio, and you
199are ready to build Google Test the same way you build any Visual
200Studio project.  Files that have names ending with -md use DLL
201versions of Microsoft runtime libraries (the /MD or the /MDd compiler
202option).  Files without that suffix use static versions of the runtime
203libraries (the /MT or the /MTd option).  Please note that one must use
204the same option to compile both gtest and the test code.  If you use
205Visual Studio 2005 or above, we recommend the -md version as /MD is
206the default for new projects in these versions of Visual Studio.
207
208On Mac OS X, open the gtest.xcodeproj in the xcode/ folder using
209Xcode.  Build the "gtest" target.  The universal binary framework will
210end up in your selected build directory (selected in the Xcode
211"Preferences..." -> "Building" pane and defaults to xcode/build).
212Alternatively, at the command line, enter:
213
214  xcodebuild
215
216This will build the "Release" configuration of gtest.framework in your
217default build location.  See the "xcodebuild" man page for more
218information about building different configurations and building in
219different locations.
220
221If you wish to use the Google Test Xcode project with Xcode 4.x and
222above, you need to either:
223 * update the SDK configuration options in xcode/Config/General.xconfig.
224   Comment options SDKROOT, MACOS_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET, and GCC_VERSION. If
225   you choose this route you lose the ability to target earlier versions
226   of MacOS X.
227 * Install an SDK for an earlier version. This doesn't appear to be
228   supported by Apple, but has been reported to work
229   (http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5378518).
230
231Tweaking Google Test
232--------------------
233
234Google Test can be used in diverse environments.  The default
235configuration may not work (or may not work well) out of the box in
236some environments.  However, you can easily tweak Google Test by
237defining control macros on the compiler command line.  Generally,
238these macros are named like GTEST_XYZ and you define them to either 1
239or 0 to enable or disable a certain feature.
240
241We list the most frequently used macros below.  For a complete list,
242see file include/gtest/internal/gtest-port.h.
243
244### Choosing a TR1 Tuple Library ###
245
246Some Google Test features require the C++ Technical Report 1 (TR1)
247tuple library, which is not yet available with all compilers.  The
248good news is that Google Test implements a subset of TR1 tuple that's
249enough for its own need, and will automatically use this when the
250compiler doesn't provide TR1 tuple.
251
252Usually you don't need to care about which tuple library Google Test
253uses.  However, if your project already uses TR1 tuple, you need to
254tell Google Test to use the same TR1 tuple library the rest of your
255project uses, or the two tuple implementations will clash.  To do
256that, add
257
258  -DGTEST_USE_OWN_TR1_TUPLE=0
259
260to the compiler flags while compiling Google Test and your tests.  If
261you want to force Google Test to use its own tuple library, just add
262
263  -DGTEST_USE_OWN_TR1_TUPLE=1
264
265to the compiler flags instead.
266
267If you don't want Google Test to use tuple at all, add
268
269  -DGTEST_HAS_TR1_TUPLE=0
270
271and all features using tuple will be disabled.
272
273### Multi-threaded Tests ###
274
275Google Test is thread-safe where the pthread library is available.
276After #include "gtest/gtest.h", you can check the GTEST_IS_THREADSAFE
277macro to see whether this is the case (yes if the macro is #defined to
2781, no if it's undefined.).
279
280If Google Test doesn't correctly detect whether pthread is available
281in your environment, you can force it with
282
283  -DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=1
284
285or
286
287  -DGTEST_HAS_PTHREAD=0
288
289When Google Test uses pthread, you may need to add flags to your
290compiler and/or linker to select the pthread library, or you'll get
291link errors.  If you use the CMake script or the deprecated Autotools
292script, this is taken care of for you.  If you use your own build
293script, you'll need to read your compiler and linker's manual to
294figure out what flags to add.
295
296### As a Shared Library (DLL) ###
297
298Google Test is compact, so most users can build and link it as a
299static library for the simplicity.  You can choose to use Google Test
300as a shared library (known as a DLL on Windows) if you prefer.
301
302To compile *gtest* as a shared library, add
303
304  -DGTEST_CREATE_SHARED_LIBRARY=1
305
306to the compiler flags.  You'll also need to tell the linker to produce
307a shared library instead - consult your linker's manual for how to do
308it.
309
310To compile your *tests* that use the gtest shared library, add
311
312  -DGTEST_LINKED_AS_SHARED_LIBRARY=1
313
314to the compiler flags.
315
316Note: while the above steps aren't technically necessary today when
317using some compilers (e.g. GCC), they may become necessary in the
318future, if we decide to improve the speed of loading the library (see
319http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/Visibility for details).  Therefore you are
320recommended to always add the above flags when using Google Test as a
321shared library.  Otherwise a future release of Google Test may break
322your build script.
323
324### Avoiding Macro Name Clashes ###
325
326In C++, macros don't obey namespaces.  Therefore two libraries that
327both define a macro of the same name will clash if you #include both
328definitions.  In case a Google Test macro clashes with another
329library, you can force Google Test to rename its macro to avoid the
330conflict.
331
332Specifically, if both Google Test and some other code define macro
333FOO, you can add
334
335  -DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_FOO=1
336
337to the compiler flags to tell Google Test to change the macro's name
338from FOO to GTEST_FOO.  Currently FOO can be FAIL, SUCCEED, or TEST.
339For example, with -DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_TEST=1, you'll need to write
340
341  GTEST_TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
342
343instead of
344
345  TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
346
347in order to define a test.
348
349Upgrating from an Earlier Version
350---------------------------------
351
352We strive to keep Google Test releases backward compatible.
353Sometimes, though, we have to make some breaking changes for the
354users' long-term benefits.  This section describes what you'll need to
355do if you are upgrading from an earlier version of Google Test.
356
357### Upgrading from 1.3.0 or Earlier ###
358
359You may need to explicitly enable or disable Google Test's own TR1
360tuple library.  See the instructions in section "Choosing a TR1 Tuple
361Library".
362
363### Upgrading from 1.4.0 or Earlier ###
364
365The Autotools build script (configure + make) is no longer officially
366supportted.  You are encouraged to migrate to your own build system or
367use CMake.  If you still need to use Autotools, you can find
368instructions in the README file from Google Test 1.4.0.
369
370On platforms where the pthread library is available, Google Test uses
371it in order to be thread-safe.  See the "Multi-threaded Tests" section
372for what this means to your build script.
373
374If you use Microsoft Visual C++ 7.1 with exceptions disabled, Google
375Test will no longer compile.  This should affect very few people, as a
376large portion of STL (including <string>) doesn't compile in this mode
377anyway.  We decided to stop supporting it in order to greatly simplify
378Google Test's implementation.
379
380Developing Google Test
381----------------------
382
383This section discusses how to make your own changes to Google Test.
384
385### Testing Google Test Itself ###
386
387To make sure your changes work as intended and don't break existing
388functionality, you'll want to compile and run Google Test's own tests.
389For that you can use CMake:
390
391  mkdir mybuild
392  cd mybuild
393  cmake -Dgtest_build_tests=ON ${GTEST_DIR}
394
395Make sure you have Python installed, as some of Google Test's tests
396are written in Python.  If the cmake command complains about not being
397able to find Python ("Could NOT find PythonInterp (missing:
398PYTHON_EXECUTABLE)"), try telling it explicitly where your Python
399executable can be found:
400
401  cmake -DPYTHON_EXECUTABLE=path/to/python -Dgtest_build_tests=ON ${GTEST_DIR}
402
403Next, you can build Google Test and all of its own tests.  On *nix,
404this is usually done by 'make'.  To run the tests, do
405
406  make test
407
408All tests should pass.
409
410### Regenerating Source Files ###
411
412Some of Google Test's source files are generated from templates (not
413in the C++ sense) using a script.  A template file is named FOO.pump,
414where FOO is the name of the file it will generate.  For example, the
415file include/gtest/internal/gtest-type-util.h.pump is used to generate
416gtest-type-util.h in the same directory.
417
418Normally you don't need to worry about regenerating the source files,
419unless you need to modify them.  In that case, you should modify the
420corresponding .pump files instead and run the pump.py Python script to
421regenerate them.  You can find pump.py in the scripts/ directory.
422Read the Pump manual [2] for how to use it.
423
424  [2] http://code.google.com/p/googletest/wiki/PumpManual
425
426### Contributing a Patch ###
427
428We welcome patches.  Please read the Google Test developer's guide [3]
429for how you can contribute.  In particular, make sure you have signed
430the Contributor License Agreement, or we won't be able to accept the
431patch.
432
433  [3] http://code.google.com/p/googletest/wiki/GoogleTestDevGuide
434
435Happy testing!
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